Our science update
An example of a histology report
Updates on our Pilot Pups
Updates on our histology data
In this update:
I'm happy to report that we've recruited a highly qualified U.S. based Scientific Director.
We have also recruited an additional new chemist, and an additional new veterinarian.
Our Scientific Director has, among other things, also taken the lead in our negotiations with research centers and contract research organizations (CRO's), to speed up the work.
I'm also happy to report that each day we are getting closer to success. For example, our studies have produced some of our highest follicle counts to date: a 71% and 68% follicle count, each of course from a single trial cookie (in two of our Pilot Pups) -- which are terrific results.
One of the challenges we face is this: sometimes a single dose works very well, producing follicle counts over 60% ... but sometimes it does not. Currently, it is inconsistent -- and it is crucial that we figure out why, and that we make it consistent.
In addition, we are also continuing to investigate more than one possible formula and compound, such as the naturally occurring papaya seed. There are many other substances known to impair fertility, and some are being investigated for possible use as human or animal birth control. We will be posting some of these along with their molecular formulas, soon. While these have their strong points, there is one that many consider to be "at the head of the pack."
The compound we have found to be most effective thus far, is the man-made chemical known as VCD: Vinylcyclohexene dioxide, CAS. No. 106-87-6, C8H12O2.
As a multiple-dose formula, it is already approved for use in the U.S. by the EPA, to produce infertility in rodents.
A major difference between this rodent formula, and the formula 600 is working on, is that the rodent formula requires many doses to do the job.
On the other hand, our goal is to produce a formula that will do the job in one dose -- in one Spay and Neuter cookie.
Studies by others have shown that when used as intended, with dogs for example, VCD has proven itself to be safe. Contrast this with: when VCD is in its pure, original state, it is highly concentrated and caustic. In its concentrated form, it cannot be used because it is too caustic and it must be "watered down."
Not only our scientists, but outside scientists as well, believe that this compound is so effective thus far that different versions are expected to help additional mammalian species in need, such as wild horses, deer, coyotes and possibly even ... people.
We have also posted photographs of about a dozen of our rescued Pilot Pups.
As you know, each Pilot Pup is given a single trial Spay and Neuter Cookie, and then about 30 days later, the pup is spayed or neutered, and the reproductive tissues that are removed as part of the surgery are then histologically examined under a microscope.
These are referred to as histology slides. The histology slides are then examined under a microscope, by specialists: veterinary pathologists in particular.
These microscopic examinations allow scientists to determine how effective a particular cookie was, or was not.
We have also posted about a dozen new photographs of histology slides, showing tissues at different stages of their examination.
We are also posting below, for the first time, an example of a histology report. These are reports by veterinary pathologists, in which they detail their findings as they examine one histology slide at a time.
In summary, our scientists are convinced that when completed: the one-dose cookie is destined to have a powerful global impact, benefiting millions of animals ... and thanks to you, we can carry out this life-saving scientific work, which has never been done before.
An example of a histology report by a veterinary pathologist, from a microscope slide containing tissue from an ovary.
Histology Report, Slide #1612RCO
For the purposes of this report, stages of follicular development were defined by the following criteria.
Primordial follicle – An oocyte surrounded by a single layer of flattened (squamous) follicular cells.
Primary follicle – Ranging from an oocyte surrounded by a single layer of cuboidal cells to a follicle surrounded by a zona pellucida and by multiple layers of follicular cells. Has not developed any early stages of a follicular antrum.
Secondary follicle – Portions of or a full follicular antrum has formed but has not developed a cumulus oophorus and corona radiata.
Tertiary, Graafian and pre-ovulatory follicles – Contains a well-developed follicular antrum and a cumulus oophorus and corona radiata.
Polyovulate follicles were identified when multiple oocytes were surrounded by a layer of follicular cells. If any follicular cells were identified between oocytes, these were counted as individual follicles.
Damage to follicles was defined as swelling and/or vacuolization of granulosa cells (degeneration), nuclear pyknosis (shrinkage) and/or hypereosinophilia of granulosa cells or oocytes (necrosis)
In order to prevent bias and false identification, follicles that are not able to be definitively identified due to sectioning, artifactual distortion, or atresia, were not counted.
In the examined section of canine ovary, 173 follicles were observed: 96 primordial, 70 primary, 6 secondary and 1 tertiary.
Of the 96 primordial follicles, 11 are biovate and 1 is multiovate. Of the 70 primary follicles, 7 are biovate and 1 is multiovate. No secondary or tertiary follicles in this section were biovate or multiovate.
Of the 96 primordial follicles, 14 of the follicles had evidence of damage (14.6%), including nuclear pyknosis (shrinkage) and hypereosinophilia (both consistent with necrosis; 3/96), granulosa cell swelling and vacuolation (both consistent with degeneration; 11/96).
Ten of the primary follicles have evidence of damage (14.3%) observed as granulosa cell swelling and vacuolization (both consistent with degeneration; 10/70). None of the primary follicles exhibited damage in the form of necrosis. Of the 6 secondary follicles, 2 of the follicles have evidence of damage (33.3%), in the form of pyknosis and hypereosinophilia (2/6).
None of the secondary follicles exhibiting degenerative changes (granulosa cell swelling and vacuolization). The one tertiary follicle present did not show any changes compatible with degeneration and necrosis. There is no evidence of inflammation or discernable fibrosis in the evaluated section.
Note: CO in Slide #1612RCO indicates this was a control, v2.
We've recently updated our science page and have added many new histology slides. Click here to take a look!